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Men's Health

Risk Factors / Symptoms

The Risk Factors

The causes of Prostate Cancer are not known. However there are certain risk factors that have been linked with the development of Prostate Cancer including:

  • Family history of prostate cancer – those men with a father or brother who has had Prostate Cancer
  • Age – men over the age of 50 years
  • Diet – a diet high in animal fat and protein
  • Race – Afro-Caribbean men are more at risk of having Prostate Cancer than Asian men

The Symptoms

Early Prostate Cancer usually causes no symptoms. Many men over fifty have urinary symptoms such as:

  • a need to pass urine more often, especially at night
  • difficulty starting
  • difficulty holding back the flow
  • not being able to urinate when you feel you need to
  • poor urine flow or a flow that stops and starts
  • painful ejaculation
  • decreased libido
  • reduced ability to get an erection

However, these symptoms are generally caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and not by cancer. BPH cannot turn into Prostate Cancer.

Later stage Prostate Cancer may cause symptoms including:

  • pain or burning when urinating
  • blood in urine
  • pain in the lower back, hips or upper thighs

Usually these symptoms are not caused by cancer. However, you should have any symptoms checked by a doctor.The most common symptom is bone pain, often in the vertebrae, pelvis or ribs. Spread of cancer into other bones such as the femur is usually to the proximal part of the bone. Prostate Cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing leg weakness, urinary and faecal incontinence.

If you would like more information visit:

The Andrology Australia site: www.andrologyaustralia.org
Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia: www.prostate.org.au

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